just back from a trip that took in some of the area your looking at (we left enough to have to go back one day)
to get into Ulura (see I've been converted!) you buy a 3 day pass so plan on staying 2 nights at least. If you want to climb it you might have to be flexible at it can be closed due to heat/wind/etc. I'dsuggest to try the 1st chance you get that way if it's not possible you can go back another time/day. Kata Tjuta (spelling? but it's the Olgas...) is well worth the drive. If you want to stay nearby you have to stay at the resort (has camping areas), other options are a long way away (eg. Curtain Springs)
We didn't book ahead (except WA coast like Broome, Coral Bay) as we weren't overly concerned about having power and most places nearly always have room for unpowered camping. Ring from Erldunda or somewhere on your way to book a site unless you're definitely sure your going to be there on a cetain date. Also, most places give you until 10am to rebook if you want to stay longer so generally just book 1 night unless your sure your going to stay (eg Uluru)
Kings Canon was great, the rim walk (steep start but rest is easy although it takes 3.5-4hrs) well worth it. We then went to the West McDonnell Ranges via the Merennie Loop road.
We did a overnight trip out to Chambers Pillar and afternoon trip to Rainbow Valley (both sth of Alice). School of the Air and Flying Doctors both interesting.
Think about how you can carry some firewood as there's plenty of places you can bot collect it and use it. Kids love fires!
I have a website ( http://www.nlandgl.com/roundOz
) of our trip (not yet completed) so if there's something there you'd like to know more about, fire away!